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Date Published, February 7, Last Edited, March 4, The boundaries of Canada — and the provinces and territories within it — have shifted and. The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the . The following table lists the territories in order of precedence (each province has precedence over all the territories, regardless of the date each territory was In , the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba were expanded. Provinces and territories will be responsible for determining how lowering possession limits; increasing the minimum age; restricting where.
Historical Boundaries of Canada
From the northwest point of that lake the boundary was to run due W to the Mississippi R. This description, based on a map of N America first published in by John Mitchell, and inaccurate in many respects, led to at least 9 boundary problems. In Jay's Treaty began to clarify these problems. The first controversy developed over the exact location of the St Croix R because 3 rivers existed where the Mitchell map showed only 2.
Arbitrators favoured what is now the Schoodic R, but it had 2 branches, and when the eastern branch was selected, a line drawn N from it almost cut off the Maritime provinces from Lower Canada.
Commissions and arbitrations in and could not reach an acceptable solution. During the following period of tension, a clash occurred between lumbermen from NB and Maine in the disputed area see Aroostook War. The dispute ended only when a compromise was reached through the Ashburton-Webster Treaty of Another difficulty developed when it was discovered that a line drawn due W from the northwestern point of Lake of the Woods did not encounter the Mississippi R, which rose farther S than was indicated on the Mitchell map.
This difficulty was resolved by the Convention of Britain and the US therefore agreed to occupy Oregon jointly for 10 years.
In this compromise was reaffirmed for an indefinite period. Although "fifty-four forty or fight" became an American election campaign slogan inthe British proposal to divide the area by extending the boundary along the 49th parallel westward to the coast and then through the Str of Juan de Fuca was incorporated into the Oregon Treaty 2 years later.
This treaty did not precisely describe the water boundary, and further controversy was ultimately resolved by arbitration in see Treaty of Washington.
The boundary between Russian and British territory was described inwell before the American purchase of Alaska in The st meridian was chosen as the northern part of the boundary, probably because it ran N from Mt St Elias, one of the few outstanding and unmistakable features in a relatively unknown area, and because it separated the maritime interests of the Russians from the land interests of the HBC.
Difficulties in interpreting the exact location of this boundary arose after the Klondike Gold Rush. The crucial question was whether the Anglo-Russian Convention of called for a boundary drawn around the heads of the coastal inlets favoured by the USor one which followed the summits of the mountains paralleling the general trend of the coast and cut across all inlets and fjords which Canada advocated.
The problem was referred to a joint commission and later a tribunal, which described the boundary as it still exists today see Alaska Boundary Dispute. The boundary follows the American contention, so the Alaska Panhandle shuts Canada off from direct access to the Pacific Ocean in the north and is regarded as one of the circumstances limiting the development of mining and hydroelectricity in northwestern BC.
With this dispute resolved Canada and the US share the world's longest boundary at km.
Between and Canada's northern limits coincided with those of the former HBC territory. Britain transferred its rights to the arctic islands to the federal government. Canada's seaward limits embrace the territorial sea and, since the passage of the Act to Amend the Territorial Sea and Fishing Zones inextend to 12 nautical miles The most notable exceptions are in the Arctic, where Canadian sovereignty includes the waters between islands.
Canadian coastal fishing zones extend seaward nautical miles about kmas do those of many other nations. Interprovincial and Interterritorial Boundaries The present-day boundaries of NS, PEI and NB resulted from circumstances that were significant only when these regions were created British colonies in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Historical Boundaries of Canada | The Canadian Encyclopedia
Prince Edward Island, practically deserted by the French by that time, was resettled, but the inconvenience of having to refer judicial and legal matters to Halifax and the relative inaccessibility of the island, especially in winter, resulted in a separate government in They also created administrative and judicial problems, and so New Brunswick was created a separate province in with a southern boundary across the Chignecto Isthmus from Cumberland Arm to Baie Verte.
The federal government believed that Labrador extended only one mile 1. In the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council decided that the boundary for the most part followed the watershed of those rivers flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.
The French Seigneurial System of land tenure was unfamiliar to these newcomers, who were accustomed to holding their land in free and common socage ie, leasing or renting the land. Petitions for their own government were heeded, and in the province was divided into Upper Canada and Lower Canada. However, this arrangement was not entirely satisfactory, largely because the trade of both provinces was through the St Lawrence and because the division of revenues caused dissatisfaction.
This was established as essentially the 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains by the Convention of ; the area west of the Rockies was occupied by both Britain and the US. The limits between British territory and Russian Alaska were described in The area under joint British-American occupation was divided by the Oregon Treaty of In the far West, the British colonies of Vancouver Island established and British Columbia established were united in Late s A post-Confederation map of Canada, printed in It shows early boundaries for the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba, as well as the North-West Territories before the creation of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
A post-Confederation map of Canada, c. The remainder of the North-West Territories was divided into provisional districts for administrative and postal purposes, beginning with Athabaska, AlbertaSaskatchewan and Assiniboia inand then YukonMackenzie, Franklin and Ungava in in Yukon District became a separate territory in order to provide proper government for gold seekers moving into the region; see Klondike Gold Rush.
Early s — Present A map of Canada, showing the newly created provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and yet-to-be finalized boundaries for the North-West Territories, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec.
Inas agricultural settlement spread into the Prairies, the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created. In these provinces attained their present limits, and the North-West Territories districts disappeared except for Mackenzie, Keewatin which had been a disputed territory first governed by Manitoba and then in awarded to Ontario and Franklin.