Subject and Predicate. - ppt video online download
View Complete Subjects and Predicates from ENGLISH at University of Illinois, Chicago. reanclub.info Name_ Date_ Complete Subjects and. Online Publication Date: Jun . There are several classes of complex predicates that have the appearance of syntactic phrases and yet behave. Name Lesson 1 Date Complete Subjects and Predicates Teaching A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every complete sentence.
Roughly speaking, traditional logic seems to favor some sort of realistic view of universals, since terms representing universals can serve as both logical subjects and logical predicates. In the notation of modern logic, on the other hand, only singular expressions can serve as logical subjects, and this rule seems to give prominence to individuals rather than to universals.
But a variety of epistemological and metaphysical views can consistently be advanced by both traditional and modern logicians, and the ascendancy of modern logic can be attributed to its greater flexibility, adaptability, and power as a calculus, rather than to epistemological and metaphysical views associated with it.
It seems prudent, therefore, to keep matters of perspicuous symbolism and logical transformation separate from other considerations.
The epistemological subject of 8 is ravens, and hence one would go about confirming the proposition by examining ravens and finding them black.
This assumption gives rise to the so-called paradox of confirmation, for it then appears as though we might confirm 8 and 9 by examining nonblack things and finding them not to be ravens, contrary to our normal procedure for confirming such simple generalizations.
One solution is to hold that transposition does not apply to the epistemological structure of a proposition, that the epistemological structure of a proposition is therefore not always parallel to its logical structure, and that the epistemological subject of 9 is the same as that of 8 —that is, ravens.Learn English Grammar: Subject and Predicate
But the desire to have epistemological structure unambiguously represented in logical notation is a powerful consideration for some philosophers, and hence the matter is still controversial. Metaphysics The distinctions between subject and predicate in grammar, epistemology, and logic have given rise to a variety of metaphysical doctrines.
These doctrines deserve separate consideration because although they are closely related to the distinctions already sketched and are suggested by them, none follows from them.
Plato noted that applying different predicates to a subject often entails a change in the subject, whereas applying a predicate to different subjects does not entail a change in the predicate. He took this changelessness to be a mark of reality as well as epistemological priorityand hence his theory of Forms gives great ontological prominence to predicates concepts, universals—i.
This bold thesis opened a long and continuing dispute about the nature of universals, the problem being to determine what ontological commitments, if any, are entailed by our use of predicative expressions in the epistemological sense. Aristotle, in contrast to Plato, gave ontological standing to subjects as well as to predicates. Discussing substance in his Categories, he defined "first substances" as things satisfying two conditions: He then defined "second substances" as things satisfying the second condition but not the first.
SUBJECT AND PREDICATE
First substances are individuals. Second substances are species or universals and hence incorporate an element of Plato's metaphysics although not all universals are substances.
An attractive feature of Aristotle's metaphysical treatment of subjects is that it fits his conception of subjects in epistemology and logic: What we talk about and investigate especially in biology, Aristotle's scientific forte are individuals and species, and his logic allows both individual names and universal terms, including species names, to occur as logical subjects. But, in spite of its merits, Aristotle's metaphysical conception of subjects is often regarded as unsatisfactory, largely because of qualms about putting individuals and species in one basket, about distinguishing predicates that stand for substances from those that do not, and about the usefulness of traditional logic.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 's doctrine of monads builds on Aristotle's conception of individual substance. But Leibniz considered Aristotle's definition inadequate, and he defined a monad or individual substance as a subject that contains all its predicates—that is, as an individual from whose "notion" it is possible to deduce all that may ever be truly predicated of it.
Few philosophers have thought there were any such substances. One difficulty may be that Leibniz attributed to his monads, which are epistemological subjects, the sort of identity that characteristically belongs to a predicate—namely, a definite set of entailments that define it. Whereas Leibniz had only one kind of substance, G. Hegel allowed only one individual substance, the Absolute.
The Absolute is the ultimate subject of every statement and resembles Leibniz's monads in that it contains all its predicates in the same sense as the monads are supposed to. Other philosophers have not been convinced of the existence of such a universal subject; Russell, who acknowledges Hegelian idealism to be a plausible account of the metaphysical implications of traditional logic, regards the doctrine as a reductio ad absurdum argument against a logic that analyzes every proposition as having a subject and a predicate.
Another interesting element of idealism is the concept of the concrete universal.
Subject and Predicate - BrainPOP
Like the idea of a monad, this concept is an attempt to overcome the subject-predicate dualism by amalgamating features of both subjects and predicates in a single sort of entity. Whereas a monad is a subject with characteristics of a predicate in that its identity is determined by what is logically contained in it, or entailed by ita concrete universal is a predicate treated as a concrete individual thing.
One philosopher who accepted the subject-predicate dualism as a basis for his metaphysics was Frege. There are, he maintained, two radically different sorts of things, objects and concepts. Objects are complete, or "saturated," and stand on their own, so to speak; we have names for them and talk about them, but the name of an object can never be a grammatical or logical predicate. Concepts, or, more generally, what Frege called "functions," are incomplete, or "unsaturated"; they require an object to complete them and hence cannot stand alone, and a concept term is always a predicate, never a subject.
Frege's dualistic view has been very influential with other philosophical logicians, including Russell, Wittgenstein, Rudolf Carnapand P. Geach, but difficulties in Frege's formulation of it have impeded its general acceptance. One difficulty is that even Frege wished to talk about concepts, and hence he had to suppose that each concept has a special object associated with it that serves only as an object to talk about when we mean to discuss the concept.
A more serious difficulty is that the object-concept dualism does not fit with Frege's semantic distinction between sense and reference, which also arises from a consideration of subjects and predicates. One might expect that reference would be the mode of meaning characteristic of names of objects, and sense the mode of meaning characteristic of concept terms; however, both names and concept terms have both sense and reference.
Frege had powerful reasons for what he said, but the final impression is that his two distinctions are distressingly unrelated; hence, the philosophers most influenced by him have differed from him.
Russell, for example, vigorously rejected Frege's distinction between sense and reference in his essay "On Denoting"and Wittgenstein in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, although indebted to Frege when he characterized his metaphysical objects, left no room for any other entities corresponding to Fregean functions.
Many analytic philosophers which included Carnap, Ernest Nageland Max Black hold that neither grammatical nor logical categories have metaphysical implications. Strawson, however, revived the issue among them by considering the implications and presuppositions of grammatical, logical, and epistemological subjects in his metaphysical essay Individuals.
On balance, metaphysical skepticism must probably be considered as controversial as any of the metaphysical doctrines proposed. Holt,or R. Russell's strictures against subject-predicate logic can be found in his discussions of Aristotle and Hegel in his History of Western Philosophy New York: Norton, contains discussions of both logical and epistemological aspects of the question, as well as comments on Wittgenstein.
Macmillan,together with other relevant papers. Geach and Max Black Oxford: Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus has had a more profound influence with respect to semantics and logical form than any other twentieth-century work. Mill's discussion of connotation and denotation can be found in Book I of his System of Logic. Cornell University Press, Cornell University Press,contains useful comments on the relevant views of Aristotle and Frege.
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For further references, see the articles cited in text and entries on the philosophers mentioned. Newton Garver Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Likewise, a predicate has at its centre a simple predicate, which is always the verb or verbs that link up with the subject. In the example we just considered, the simple predicate is "would satisfy" -- in other words, the verb of the sentence.
A sentence may have a compound subject -- a simple subject consisting of more than one noun or pronoun -- as in these examples: Team pennants, rock posters and family photographs covered the boy's bedroom walls.
Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there.
The second sentence above features a compound predicate, a predicate that includes more than one verb pertaining to the same subject in this case, "walked" and "admired". Objects and Complements Objects A verb may be followed by an object that completes the verb's meaning. Two kinds of objects follow verbs: To determine if a verb has a direct object, isolate the verb and make it into a question by placing "whom? The answer, if there is one, is the direct object: Direct Object The advertising executive drove a flashy red Porsche.
Direct Object Her secret admirer gave her a bouquet of flowers. The second sentence above also contains an indirect object. An indirect object which, like a direct object, is always a noun or pronoun is, in a sense, the recipient of the direct object. To determine if a verb has an indirect object, isolate the verb and ask to whom?
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The answer is the indirect object. Not all verbs are followed by objects. Consider the verbs in the following sentences: The guest speaker rose from her chair to protest. After work, Randy usually jogs around the canal. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Verbs that take objects are known as transitive verbs. Verbs not followed by objects are called intransitive verbs. Some verbs can be either transitive verbs or intransitive verbs, depending on the context: Direct Object I hope the Senators win the next game.
No Direct Object Did we win? Subject Complements In addition to the transitive verb and the intransitive verb, there is a third kind of verb called a linking verb. The word or phrase which follows a linking verb is called not an object, but a subject complement. The most common linking verb is "be. Note that some of these are sometimes linking verbs, sometimes transitive verbs, or sometimes intransitive verbs, depending on how you use them: Linking verb with subject complement He was a radiologist before he became a full-time yoga instructor.