This article published the results of our recent study to provide the most precise absolute date for great Plinian "Minoan" eruption on Santorini about years. An olive branch was found buried in the Minoan eruption pumice on Thera ( Friedrich et al. ). The outer preserved part should give a date. Akrotiri is the Minoan town on Santorini that was damaged by earthquakes building up to the eruption and then buried under ash once Thera.
For example, nothing actually ties the supposed Tuthmosid palace platforms to any of the evidence of named New Kingdom kings scarabs carefully read Bietak et al. New archaeological finds meanwhile also dramatically undermine convention.
At Tell Edfu in Egypt, finds of sealings place the well-known Hyksos king Khayan around a century earlier than usually assumed Moeller and Marouard The lid with the inscribed name of Khayan found by Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos was also held for many decades to stop a raising of Aegean chronology, as otherwise indicated by the radiocarbon evidence — this too may go by the wayside now, and, indeed, it may instead be held as evidence indicating that an earlier date is necessary.
Of course, it will take time for such new realities to seep, drift, or sweep over the academic field of Aegean and east Mediterranean archaeology. A Canute-like tendency seems something of an archaeological trait in the east Mediterranean field.
The text of A Test of Time Revisited in Manning reviews and analyses much of the evidence regarding the dating of the Thera volcanic eruption, including numerous figures to illustrate especially the radiocarbon dates and analyses.
Minoan eruption - Wikipedia
It also provides discussion and critique of scholarship which has sought to undermine or reject the radiocarbon-based evidence and date range. Is the Thera date question important? Rather than being squeezed into the years before the rise of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, Avaris and its world can now rise in the late 18th century BC, with its great king Khayan — attested from finds bearing his name from Crete to Iraq to the Levant — around or shortly after BC, and then there are nearly another years until the conquest of Avaris by Ahmose from Thebes.
It is time for the Hyksos finally to get a better press. The key is the correct chronology: To find out more, go to: Speleothems as sensitive recorders of volcanic eruptions — the Bronze Age Minoan eruption recorded in a stalagmite from Turkey.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters Antagonisms in historical and radiocarbon chronology. Radiocarbon and the Chronologies of Ancient Egypt: The Making of the Middle Sea: The olive-branch dating of the Santorini eruption, Antiquity High-precision Bayesian modeling of samples susceptible to inbuilt age.
The olive branch chronology stands irrespective of tree-ring counting, Antiquity Tsunami waves generated by the Santorini eruption reached Eastern Mediterranean shores, Geology Journal of the Geological Society, London, The Theran eruption and Minoan palatial collapse: The chronology of Tell el-Daba: A Test of Time: The volcano of Thera and the chronology and history of the Aegean and east Mediterranean in the mid-second millennium BC.
Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age. The opportunity arose when was guiding a group for the tour Fascination Volcano in May One of the participants was Peter, a Dutch geologist. Peter agreed to help me to try to recover the branch whose cross section one could easily see in the larger hole about 2 meters above ground; it looked as if one might be able to simply pull it out It turned out difficult enough: Bringing a ladder seemed too difficult and risky, so we decided we would try it by standing on each oach other's shoulder.
In fact, this worked well. Peter climbed on my shoulder, so his own shoulder was at the height of the hole and he could begin digging away the pumice around the piece of wood, which was falling around me. Trying to simply pull out the branch didn't work. Peter dug pumice away around the branch as much as he could reach, which took a while. Finally, we realized that the branch was curved and still stuck deep inside, refusing to get loose.
We simply had to move the branch itself, even risking to break it and only recover a part. The risk that the site would be destroyed within one season - there's construction of a new hotel going on in the pumice wall above the site.
- Time's Up! Dating the Minoan eruption of Santorini
It took us almost two hours carefully moving the branch up and down, left and right, making it loose slowly from its surroundings, until Peter finally could pull it out: In perfect condition, it was only charred on the outside where the bark was still visible, and my greatest fear was it might be used as firewood if someone local got hands of it. From Santorini to Heidelberg I left the branch with friends on Santorini whom I could trust they would not burn it.
During the summer months ofWalter managed to built a team of scientists and specialists who were to analyze the wood.
Time's Up! Dating the Minoan eruption of Santorini
The branch thus travelled to Athens, then to Arhus and finally to Heidelberg, where the analysis were made that were eventually published presented in the Science paper. This part of the story is found in numereous places elsewhere. The first hole where the "Science" branch was recovered is now accessible by foot and will soon be covered. View inside the hole, were the continuation of the original branch is still visible now recovered and destined for the museum in Perissa Organic remnants of olive leaves in the basal layer of the pumice, proof that the tree was alive at the time of the eruption.
The site and the second branch. Sample of ash with olive leaves. The second piece of wood from the same hole after its recovery. Numerous pottery fragments are found in the Minoan soil near the site Walter Friedrich on his way from the site The sad news is that the site is being destroyed quickly: Drainwater is diverted into the old gully next to the site, which increased local erosion.
Inthe hole of the original piece of branch was almost covered by debris already. In a sense, this was an advantage, too, as it allowed me to recover another piece of the same branch as the one from the "Science" story see photos ; it had been just deeper inside the hole, but now I could simply creep into the hole and dig myself towards the branch piece Later, in Julya group of 4, with more adequate equipment, managed to recover the third larger piece, a beautiful, 2 meter long part of a branch from the second tree to whom the larger holes just right of the original site belonged.
This piece is now in the new geological museum of Perissa; the other one shown here is still with friends on the island, but it's planned to give it to the the museum as well.
In lateonly about half of the site is still intact and it is foreseable that within a few years at most, all evidence in situ will be gone.