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We must never forget that the fundamental difference between regular educational processes and those pertaining to long-distance education concern asynchronous communication and absence of face-to-face contact, situation that the teacher must both minimize and habitually, work around, for the sake of educational success. The development of a society is also measured by the degree of maturation of its community of educational learning, for only species capable of continuous evolution are capable of survival, as theorized by Darwin.
The capacity to evolve, progressively, in technological tools is important, but the motivation for learning, the creation of true learning communities, only results from the combined effort of the human being, the centre of all things.
Alexandre, M-learning e webquests. A cognitive science approach, in K. Cheung, A constructivist approach to designing computer supported concept mapping environment, International Journal of Instructional Media, Vol. Bottentuit, Tecnologia Educativa em Portugal: XI 1Maio, Craslen et al Eds.
Salmon, E-moderating — the key to teaching and learning online, Kogan Page, London, Tavares, Aprendizagem significativa em um ambiente multimedia, V Encuentro Internacional sobre Aprendizaje Significativo, Madrid, White, Is Web 2.
Frequently, the public education institutions are yearly financed, based upon the total number of students, enrolled by those institutions, at the beginning of the academic year. The social demand to increase the number of graduates prompts enlarging the size of classes, within the upper limits imposed by the infrastructure, by pedagogic, ergonomic or administrative regulations, size, usually, less connected with the results of an entire cycle.
But, how to choose the size of a class, to ensure both the maximum financial support and the minimum number of graduates expected by the society? The authors suggest that a criterion for finding the optimum size of classes be connected with the their academic results through the curriculum cycle, f.
Accreditation Rules, Econophysics, Education Funding.
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Introduction The management of education, at different levels, rises, frequently, questions about how to decrease the cost of education, per student. This aspect is particularly important when the expenses of an education institution E.
In many countries, including Romania, the public education institutions are yearly financed based upon the total number of students respectively, pupils enrolled with those institutions, at the beginning of the academic school year. The yearly expenditures of an E. The variable costs for the E. ISBN The fixed costs which, by name, would be independent of the number of students, are, finally, for a rather large education unit, also roughly proportional, with the total number of students enrolled in that institution, subject to a small relative error of the same order of magnitude with the relative error on the variable costs.
Each year, the E. Larger the class, smaller their number less fixed costs per student, but there are limits of the upper size of a class, imposed by the E. Usually, there are provisions in the rules of Ministry of Education or of other regulatory bodies, about the size of a class, depending of the type of activity: How to choose the size of a class, to ensure, both, the highest financial support and at least the minimum number of graduates expected by the society from a given curriculum?
There is needed a criterion for optimum. Not fulfilling these conditions means non accreditation and non financing of that curriculum in the future1.
Therefore, there exists a supplementary restriction to be dealt with by managers of an education institution, restriction depending of final results and not only of initial conditions. The authors show that, by applying this criterion of observing accreditation conditions the conditions for passing academic years and final examination one can numerically determine the optimum size of a class when enrolling freshmen, to, both, ensure the highest amount of funding and its best use and the fulfilment of the society minimum requirements.
The determination of the size of the class subjected to accreditation requirements becomes a problem in Statistical Physics or in Econophysics. Hypothetical case study Here following, there is described an example  of such sizing of a program of study curriculum 2.
This Faculty has been created, in the summer ofas an independent faculty, on the opportunity of implementing Bologna Reform of Higher Education in Romania. The University approved that increase. Soon, the candidate ranking the th on AS list, which has an average mark a little smaller than the mark of the th candidate, but larger than the minimum average mark for admission in the University, asked to be admitted in the Faculty AS, too.
But he was not accepted by the Faculty. Explain the two managerial positions, of the Faculty and of the University, considering the funding per year, per enrolled student, E, as being constant, during the whole cycle of License studies and observing the conditions for accreditation.
Solution of the problem The strategy of solving the problem is to determine, when observing 1 and 2the minimum necessary numbers of graduates of the curriculum, with License's degree, Df for the D0 desired by the Faculty AS and respectively, Mf corresponding to the MO freshmen, figure not accepted by the Faculty AS and to compare them.
The accepted results for Df and Mf are to be the upper next integers of the exactly found values. If the number of students would not be integers, the minimum percentage of graduated students, out from the freshmen, compulsorily resulting from accreditation conditions, Pf, would be: The number of graduates, GD and GM, starting from the two initial situations, D0 and respectively, M0, rounded only at the end of computations, would be: But, if there is a rounding up to the upper integer, for each year of study, the things change significantly!
Summary of the data known from the Statement when rounding up to the upper integer Known data input: The numerical Solution The minimum number of students to pass in the next year rounded up to the upper integerfor 4 years of study are, successively: The interpretation of the results The relative growth of the number of graduates due to curriculum AS, expected by the investor the Universityrf is: Therefore the Faculty is not wishing to enrol the th student, with a view to the coming accreditation inspection, at the end of the cycle.
It was not worth for the Faculty to accept the additional offer of the University. Because the examinations are internal procedures, the faculty could, eventually, reduce the level of standards for assessments, applied if accepting the th freshmen, but the Faculty AS did not want to do that, the Faculty considering the international standards of assessment as being more important.
Magical numbers By further exploring the model along a wider spectrum of enrolled freshmen in a curriculum, for the same accreditation conditions , the authors have found that there are some intervals between which the number of necessary graduates for accreditation is the same; specifically to the mentioned accreditation conditions , for the intervals: For other accreditation conditions, there are too easily be found other sets of magical numbers.
References  Ministry of Education, Research and Youth, www. The first result was that some highschools in Romania, especially from rural area, obtained a null rate of graduation. The second result was large attempts of cheating. Unfortunately, in Romania, some public highscools with null graduates have not been closed, in spite of the theoretically compulsory accreditation provisions.
In relation to the organization methods and social forms, they were broken by the advance of science and technologies. Teachers and students, with the boom in new interactive technologies, start to use tools as Internet, e-mail, videoconference that specifies the long distance tutoring. This increase the learning spaces, the learning opportunities and a better offer of the population. E-learning, Distance Education, 1.
Introduction We are living in a constant learning society and is important a permanent formation in a work market, more and more complex, that because an accelerated technologic change we have to make an effort to continue learning.
It is learning a big amount of different things in a short time, having access to a big volume of information that we can see and learn with a changing speed that carries the student to a constant learning method.
The changes in the social structures allow the appearance of new learning methods and new forms in the built of knowledge. The built platforms beginning in this new network concept move towards the construction of a learning community. In the present, the communities appear, not in a certain place, but in many due to values differences, illuminations, and other reasons.
We have a natural need to communicate, and it take us to create this communities. New technologies allow us to create communities each time there is a need to communicate. The e-learning is already use in many parts of the world.
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ISBN This model of education is characterized by the separation between the teacher and the student being their transmission of educational aspects done through the use of technical means of communication. This way it allows the student to access in learning without timetables, without problems with moving towards an institution and be able to create his own study programme.
However, the e-learning does not separate the student from the teacher, but yes search the reduction that life itself has created, and does not put aside the direct contact between the student and between the teacher and the student. The traditional means in spreading knowledge, in the present teaching, as well as the books and the class rooms has been changed with the interactive technologies appearance, e-learning, e-mail and audio conference based in video conference. The teachers and students passed using Internet tools that changed electronic teaching systems like e-learning, e-mail and audio conference based in digital video conference.
In Portugal, many of the present teaching institutions are still accepting with pessimism the adoption of e-learning because it takes a big investment in resources and success is not fully guaranteed. However have been made studies, such as in us high teaching schools, due to the collaboration between students stimulated by the lack of chance to question directly the teachers, and with either present or virtual classes, the virtual is the more successful.
The e-learning is the most demanding to the student and for the teacher, than the present teaching for a several number of issues, in opposition to the sincrone communication of the present teaching, that demands to the intervenient to be able to communicate in constructive way and precise with a sensibilized behaviour, alert and careful towards the student. This in a way to overcome the apcent of the human component of communication measured by computer The student has a better level of motivation and a better learning autonomy, as well as in managing its own time, being only to develop independence and work skills.
The teacher has the need to elaborate the easpects in a way of make it easy, with didactical, the learning process to be more autonom based in self study, demanding more time in the preparation and conception of the class. E-learning as a long distance way to teaching We live in a present where the information is all in the web, and we have been looking to a development in this communication and information technologies.
So, is very important to go with this evolution trough an innovating teaching and a quality that stands for an autonom reaching several means and methods of communication. This way, the long distance learning appears based on the web and trough Morten Paulsen is characterized with the separation of the teacher and the student.
E-learning is a way to education on-line that together is a process and application, like computer based learning and virtual classrooms. It dispobilizes program methods trough Internet, cd-rom, interactive tv. Nowadays with the continuous changes, the individual formation became an addition to the enterprise requiring a permanent learning process. E-learning as the most recent way in long distance learning corresponding to the demands in the system and methods, as well as personnel teaching where the management of time is a problem of the student.
The e-learning systems should include tested applications, when possible also a evaluation trough forums, choice possibilities trough the interactive Works, information in the student interest and sound system and pictures up to communicate, synchronal and asynchrony. For some years we live in times of rapid development of informatics technologies, with access to global networks, data base, virtual libraries, e-mail, cd Rom and a great Bio variety of Software offers.
This new technologies help us to overcame the actual forms in learning and teaching. With the massification of the new information and communication technologies it is imperative the adoption of these in learning and teaching.
This is called e-learning. This way teaching is with collaboration, giving the chance to the student to benefit the support and the feedback from the other students with the learning procedure. The number of teachers that give lessons this way is growing in Portugal and in the rest f the world. This is because the reason is centred in the student, allowing to build his way through self formation, interacting with the available information and their need in learning, in flexible way, without time tables or place, by himself and the theory to several activities.
ISBN This methodological kind way in long distance tutoring, has a lot of benefits, such as the circulation of information in real time, with access to everyone interested, in any time or place, when connected with a informatic study.
This has a role in the different types of learning that are impossible in the normal school structure. When the interactive is about change, from a teaching whit limits, the students role in the search from information is where he tries to adapt to the patent information is whatever he looks for.
The several pat to interaction when learning upon e-learning, is the student computer interaction, student-work interaction studentteacher interaction. The teacher must have a important role in the permanent contact whit the student with a certain motivation, involving, understanding, trust and high participation, and if necessary, good acting and cannot let the other students run away from the courses for feeling isolament or, that the work of the group on the demands, that can be personal or professional.
At last, the teacher must be alert to the differences in the cultures, differences in the several societies and the several experience levels of the students.
The change to use accrue understanding communication allows a bigger reflexion, fixation of the knowledge, opinions ect… and sin crone communications with the chats that can promote the thought of belong and feeling of be in a class room.
The several aspects of this communication are available in on-line environments, sin crone and assurance, they demand that the teacher is on to have a talk in a constructive and certain way and have a right behaviour: In the on stands. The sincrone communication instead of the accrue is time table dependent, or example to chat use when is necessarily fast information.
In this type of learning methodology, the teacher is now conceiving and designing teaching activities such as: And also the possibility of synchronous interactive classes — videoconference, audio, chat virtual written and oral conversation rooms and asynchronous — forums, email, debate groups.
More so, the definition of the available types of online collaboration for each activity, the demands and expectations from the online teacher, the work methodology, the activity grading techniques and their value faced with final grading. In e-learning teaching procedures grading has an aggravated importance, with the nature of the learning-teaching context having to be quite explicit.
E-learning demands of the student a greater level of motivation and greater learning autonomy than regular schooling. However, it promotes innovation in formative processes, stimulates the creation of multimedia contents, allows the creation of learning communities and broadens the geographical coverage of schooling.
But e-learning is only advantageous if it also allows for good pedagogical results for the student. E-learning and b-learning Blended Learningmore recent developments of long-distance teaching methods, present themselves as innovative formative and educative strategies that are considered crucial for the present days. Besides, they give students the possibility to become critical pro-active thinkers, building their own cognitive structure for analysis and interpretation of information, so as to more effectively intervene in reality.
The most recent form of teaching dresses itself in an increasingly greater success in a determined target-audience and in determined corporate sectors, given the convergence of needs between the company and new technological assets. The growing development of an economy based on knowledge cannot help but place new expectations regarding the necessary adaptation of Higher Teaching Institutions, since significant challenges and great opportunities are faced.
The emergence of knowledge appreciation in society is interconnected to the development of information and communication technologies, in so that they drive its creation and dissemination processes. The designated elearning platforms PeLby offering an enlarged set integrated with functionalities, allow the establishment the creation of distributed environments that can support new approaches in higher teaching.
Information and communication technologies and e-learning platforms in particular, are seen as a potential response to a great diversity of problems and needs, specifically, pedagogical, administrative, of professional ethics in area research and organizational learning. On the side, Bailey is dull, his satirized very much dating beautiful filipina women with that. Campuriforme Anurag completes his duty with a smile.
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