Suburb - Wikipedia
Aug 4, Anitta aparece sem maquiagem e brinca: 'Suburbano você Trends On Twitter After Proud Mom Praises Son Who 'Won't Go On Solo Dates'. Mar 31, de una familia disfuncional de un barrio suburbano de Estados Unidos. See the full list of broadcast's midseason premiere dates below. of all links by search engines like Google, Yahoo and Co, all links for tournaments older than 2 weeks (end-date) are shown after clicking the following button.
A notable transition took place in Washington, D.
From about to cable drives provided motive power to Washington streetcars, and after electricity powered the cars. A North American city that did not eliminate its cable car lines was San Francisco and much of its San Francisco cable car system continues to operate to this day.
In this transition period some early streetcar lines in large cities opted to rebuild their railways above or below grade to help further speed transit. Such system would become known as rapid transit or later as heavy rail lines.
Electrification[ edit ] An editorial cartoon from New Orleans, advocating the switch from horsecars to electric streetcars, October 21, The World Cotton Centennial was held in New Orleans, Louisiana from December 16, to June 2, It featured displays with a great deal of electric light illumination, an observation tower with electric elevators, and several prototype designs of electric streetcars.
Sprague in Richmond, Virginiaand was operating by February 2, The Richmond system had a large impact upon the burgeoning electric trolley industry. Sprague's use of a trolley pole for D. The North American English use of the term "trolley" instead of "tram" for a street railway vehicle derives from the work that Sprague did in Richmond and quickly spread elsewhere.
Growth[ edit ] Several streetcars, including an open-air tourist car, in Vancouver in By electric railways incorporating Sprague's equipment had been started or were planned on several continents.
CP 2336 | Suburbano Azambuja->Alcântara Terra | Alcântara Terra, 11.13
The rapid growth of streetcar systems led to the widespread ability of people to live outside of a city and commute into it for work on a daily basis. Several of the communities that grew as a result of this new mobility were known as streetcar suburbs.
In some areas interurban lines competed with regular passenger service on mainline railroads and in others they simply complemented the mainline roads by serving towns not on the mainlines. The Lake Compounce amusement park, which started inhad by established trolley service to its rural Connecticut location. Although outside trolley service to Lake Compounce stopped in the s, the park resurrected its trolley past with the opening of the "Lakeside Trolley" ride in which is still operating today as a short heritage line.
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Bysuburbs increasingly gained people in racial minority groups, as many members of minority groups became better educated, more affluent, and sought more favorable living conditions compared to inner city areas. Conversely, many white Americans also moved back to city centers.
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Nearly all major city downtowns such as Downtown MiamiDowntown DetroitDowntown PhiladelphiaDowntown Roanokeor Downtown Los Angeles are experiencing a renewal, with large population growth, residential apartment construction, and increased social, cultural, and infrastructural investments, as have suburban neighborhoods close to city centers.
Better public transitproximity to work and cultural attractions, and frustration with suburban life and gridlock have attracted young Americans to the city centers. However, of this metropolitan population, in nearly half lived in low-density neighborhoods, with only one in five living in a typical "urban" neighborhood. Often, Canadian suburbs are less automobile-centred and public transit use is encouraged but can be notably unused. Population and income growth in Canadian suburbs had tended to outpace growth in core urban or rural areas, but in many areas this trend has now reversed.
In certain cities, particularly Edmonton and Calgarysuburban growth takes place within the city boundaries as opposed to in bedroom communities. This is due to annexation and large geographic footprint within the city borders.
Calgary is unusual among Canadian cities because it has developed as a unicity - it has annexed most of its surrounding towns and large amounts of undeveloped land around the city.
As a result, most of the communities that Calgarians refer to as "suburbs" are actually inside the city limits. The perceived low population density of Calgary largely results from its many internal suburbs and the large amount of undeveloped land within the city. The city actually has a policy of densifying its new developments. In many parts of the developed world, suburbs can be economically distressed areas, inhabited by higher proportions of recent immigrants, with higher delinquency rates and social problems.
Sometimes the notion of suburb may even refer to people in real misery, who are kept at the limit of the city borders for economic, social, and sometimes ethnic reasons. An example in the developed world would be the banlieues of France, or the concrete suburbs of Sweden, even if the suburbs of these countries also include middle-class and upper-class neighborhoods that often consist of single-family houses. Thus some of the suburbs of most of the developed world are comparable to several inner cities of the U.
The growth in the use of trains, and later automobiles and highways, increased the ease with which workers could have a job in the city while commuting in from the suburbs. In the United Kingdom, as mentioned above, railways stimulated the first mass exodus to the suburbs. The Metropolitan Railwayfor example, was active in building and promoting its own housing estates in the north-west of London, consisting mostly of detached houses on large plots, which it then marketed as " Metro-land ".
In Australia, Sydney 's urban sprawl has occurred predominantly in the Western Suburbs. The locality of Olympic Park was designated an official suburb in In the UK, the government is seeking to impose minimum densities on newly approved housing schemes in parts of South East England.
The goal is to "build sustainable communities" rather than housing estates. However, commercial concerns tend to delay the opening of services until a large number of residents have occupied the new neighbourhood. In Mexico, suburbs are generally similar to their United States counterparts. Houses are made in many different architectural styles which may be of European, American and International architecture and which vary in size.
Suburbs can be found in GuadalajaraMexico City, Monterreyand most major cities. Lomas de Chapultepec is an example of an affluent suburb, although it is located inside the city and by no means is today a suburb in the strict sense of the word. In the rest of Latin America, the situation is similar to that of Mexico, with many suburbs being built, most notably in Argentina and Chilewhich have experienced a boom in the construction of suburbs since the late s and early 80s. As the growth of middle-class and upper-class suburbs increased, low-class squatter areas have increased, most notably "lost cities" in Mexico, campamentos in Chile, barriadas in Peru, villa miserias in Argentina, asentamientos in Guatemala and favelas of Brazil.
Brazilian affluent suburbs are generally denser, more vertical and mixed in use inner suburbs. They concentrate infrastructure, investment and attention from the municipal seat and the best offer of mass transit. True sprawling towards neighboring municipalities is typically empoverished — periferia the periphery, in the sense of it dealing with spatial marginalization —, with a very noticeable example being the rail suburbs of Rio de Janeiro — the North Zone, the Baixada Fluminensethe part of the West Zone associated with SuperVia's Ramal de Santa Cruz.
These, in comparison with the inner suburbs, often prove to be remote, violent food deserts with inadequate sewer structure coverage, saturated mass transit, more precarious running water, electricity and communication services, and lack of urban planning and landscaping, while also not necessarily qualifying as actual favelas or slums.
Streetcars in North America - Wikipedia
They often are former agricultural land or wild areas settled through squatting, and grew in amount particularly due to mass rural exodus during the years of the military dictatorship. Slums in Sowetosuburb of JohannesburgSouth Africa. In Africa, since the beginning of the s, the development of middle-class suburbs boomed. Due to the industrialization of many African countries, particularly in cities such as CairoJohannesburg and Lagosthe middle class has grown. In much of Sowetomany houses are American in appearance, but are smaller, and often consist of a kitchen and living room, two or three bedrooms, and a bathroom.
However, there are more affluent neighborhoods, more comparable to American suburbs, particularly east of the FNB Stadium. In Cape Town there is a distinct European style which is due to the European influence during the mids when the Dutch conquered the area. Houses like these are called Cape Dutch Houses and can be found in the affluent suburbs of Constantia and Bishopscourt.
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In the illustrative case of Rome, Italy, in the s and s, suburbs were intentionally created ex novo in order to give lower classes a destination, in consideration of the actual and foreseen massive arrival of poor people from other areas of the country.
Many critics have seen in this development pattern which was circularly distributed in every direction also a quick solution to a problem of public order keeping the unwelcome poorest classes together with the criminals, in this way better controlled, comfortably remote from the elegant "official" town. On the other hand, the expected huge expansion of the town soon effectively covered the distance from the central town, and now those suburbs are completely engulfed by the main territory of the town.
Other newer suburbs called exurbs were created at a further distance from them. In Russia, the term suburb refers to high-rise residential apartments which usually consist of two bedrooms, one bathroom, a kitchen and a living room.
These suburbs, however are usually not in poor neighborhoods, unlike the banlieuees. Apartments in suburban Beijing, China In China, the term suburb is new, although suburbs are already being constructed rapidly.
Chinese suburbs mostly consist of rows upon rows of apartment blocks and condos that end abruptly into the countryside.